Diurnal and Eating-Associated Microbial Patterns Revealed via High-Frequency Saliva Sampling


The oral microbiome is linked to oral and systemic health, but its fluctuation under frequent daily activities remains elusive. Here, we sampled saliva at 10- to 60-min intervals to track the high-resolution microbiome dynamics during the course of human activities. This dense time series data showed that eating activity markedly perturbed the salivary microbiota, with tongue-specific Campylobacter concisus and Oribacterium sinus and dental plaque-specific Lautropia mirabilis, Rothia aeria, and Neisseria oralis increased after every meal in a temporal order. The observation was reproducible in multiple subjects and across an 11-mo period. The microbiome composition showed significant diurnal oscillation patterns at different taxonomy levels with Prevotella/Alloprevotella increased at night and Bergeyella HMT 206/Haemophilus slowly increased during the daytime. We also identified microbial co-occurring patterns in saliva that are associated with the intricate biogeography of the oral microbiome. Microbial source tracking analysis showed that the contributions of distinct oral niches to the salivary microbiome were dynamically affected by daily activities, reflecting the role of saliva in exchanging microbes with other oral sites. Collectively, our study provides insights into the temporal microbiome variation in saliva and highlights the need to consider daily activities and diurnal factors in design of oral microbiome studies.

Genome Res.