Meta-Analysis Reveals Helicobacter Pylori Mutual Exclusivity and Reproducible Gastric Microbiome Alterations during Gastric Carcinoma Progression


Accumulating evidence shows that the gastric bacterial community may contribute to the development of gastric cancer (GC). However, the reported alterations of gastric microbiota were not always consistent among the literature. To assess reproducible signals in gastric microbiota during the progression of GC across studies, we performed a meta-analysis of nine publicly available 16S datasets with standard tools of the state-of-the-art. Despite study-specific batch effect, significant changes in the composition of the gastric microbiome were found during the progression of gastric carcinogenesis, especially when the Helicobacter pylori (HP) reads were removed from analyses to mitigate its compositional effect as they accounted for extremely large proportions of sequencing depths in many gastric samples. Differential microbes, including Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, and several lactic acid bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus anginosus, which were frequently and significantly enriched in GC patients compared with gastritis across studies, had good discriminatory capacity to distinguish GC samples from gastritis. Oral microbes were significantly enriched in GC compared to precancerous stages. Intriguingly, we observed mutual exclusivity of different HP species across studies. In addition, the comparison between gastric fluid and mucosal microbiome suggested their convergent dysbiosis during gastric disease progression. Taken together, our systematic analysis identified novel and consistent microbial patterns in gastric carcinogenesis.

Gut Microbes